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Filipa Calado 1International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom Mark D.
Background and aims Problem gambling has been identified as an emergent public health issue, and there is a need to identify gambling trends and to regularly update worldwide gambling prevalence rates.
This paper aims to review recent research on adult gambling and problem gambling since 2000 and then, in the context of a growing liberalization of the gambling market in the European Union, intends to provide a more detailed analysis of adult gambling behavior across European countries.
Methods A systematic literature search was carried out using academic databases, Internet, and governmental websites.
Results Following this search and utilizing exclusion criteria, 69 studies on adult gambling prevalence were identified.
These studies demonstrated that there are wide variations in past-year problem gambling rates across different countries in the world 0.
However, it is difficult to directly compare studies due to different methodological procedures, instruments, cut-offs, and time frames.
Despite the variability among instruments, some consistent results with regard to demographics were found.
Discussion and conclusion The findings highlight the need for continuous monitoring of problem gambling prevalence rates in order to examine the influence of cultural context on gambling patterns, assess the effectiveness of policies on gambling-related harms, and establish priorities for future research.
Introduction Gambling has become widely viewed as a socially acceptable form of recreation.
For most individuals, gambling is an enjoyable and harmless activity.
However, for a small minority of individuals it can become both addictive and problematic with severe negative consequences.
Consequently, the expansion of legalized gambling has been identified as an important public health concern ;and as a result, the number of individuals seeking assistance for gambling-related problems .
Previous systematic reviews are now either outdated e.
Thus, there is a need for conducting more click here reviews in order to synthesize the disordered gambling trends and to analyze the comparative prevalence of problem gambling rates across different countries.
Consequently, the aim of the present review is to present an update of recent international research published since 2000 for problem and pathological gambling prevalence rates among adults irrespective of data quality to highlight both countries that have carried out robust prevalence surveys and those that have not, with a particular emphasis on European countries as no recent review has done this.
A recent systematic review on adolescent gambling surveys using the same method presented here was recently published by Calado, Alexandre, and Griffiths.
Additional published prevalence studies were sought via the Internet, more specifically through governmental websites, and through other reviews already available in the literature.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria: The goal was to locate all prevalence studies that were conducted at a national level.
For countries that had prevalence data for problem gambling at both regional and national level, only national data were considered.
However, in the case of countries where no national prevalence study data exist, regional studies with representative samples were included.
Ethics This paper does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Results In a first step, 92 studies were identified after a careful examination of the titles and abstracts of the studies generated by the search on the aforementioned databases and on the Internet.
In a second step, studies were excluded due to the following criteria: a they comprised non-representative groups, such as the elderly, college students, prisoners, casino patrons, community users, homeless individuals, and drug addicts 21 studies ; and b a sample of less than 500 participants 2 studies.
Therefore, the final search yielded 69 prevalence studies that are summarized in Table.
Country Study Measure Sample characteristics Response rate Gambling prevalence Problem gambling prevalence Legal age to gamble North America Canada Cox, Yu, Afifi, and Ladouceur PGSI National, 34,770 people aged 15 and over recruited by face-to-face and telephone interview 77% Not reported PGSI: Problem gambling 3+ : 2% past-year prevalence 18 years for Alberta, Manitoba, Quebec, and 19 years for other states USA Welte, Barnes, Wieczorek, Tidwell, and Parker Diagnostic Interview Schedule DIS National, 2,630 adults aged 18 and over recruited by telephone interview 65.
NODS 3,007 participants aged 14 and over recruited by face-to-face interview 66.
DIS 6,510 aged 18—64, although only 5,333 adults fully completed the Korean DIS for pathological gambling, recruited by face-to-face interview 81.
PGSI National, 15,006 adults aged 18 and over recruited by telephone interviews 26.
PGSI National, 2,000 participants aged 18 and over recruited by telephone interview landline and mobile phone 19.
SOGS-R 6,452 adults aged 18 and over interviewed by telephone 75% 86% past 6 months SOGS-R: Problem gambling 3—4 : 0.
PGSI National, 3,000 urban adults aged 18 and over interviewed face-to-face Not reported Not reported PGSI: Problem gambling 8+ : 3.
DSM-IV National, 3,002 people aged 16—99 interviewed by telephone b 60% past-year DSM-IV: Problem gambling 3—4 : 1.
Face-to-face interviews were conducted with people who could not be contacted by telephone 70% 77% past-year NODS: Problem gambling 3—4 : 0.
PGSI National, 2,826 Finnish aged 15—64 recruited by postal survey 56.
PGSI National, 4,484 people aged 15—74 interviewed by telephone 40% 78% past-year PGSI: Problem gambling 8+ : 0.
PGSI National, 25,034 aged 18—75 interviewed by telephone 60% 47.
PGSI National, 15,635 aged 15—75 interviewed by telephone Not reported 56.
DSM-IV National, 7,817 people aged 18—64 recruited by self-administered email survey supplemented with telephone interviews 48% 71.
DSM-IV National, 8,006 adults aged 18 -64 recruited by postal questionnaires 46%telephone interviews 42% and online 12% 50.
DSM-IV National, 15,023 individuals aged 14—64 years recruited by telephone interviews landline and mobile phone Landline telephone: 44.
SOGS and DSM-IV National, 7,680 aged 16 and over recruited by face-to-face interviews 65% 72% past-year SOGS: Problem gambling 5+ : 0.
PGSI and DSM-IV National, 9,003 people aged 16 and over recruited by face-to-face interviews, or by an online questionnaire, that was also available 52% 68% past-year PGSI: Problem gambling 8+ : 0.
PGSI and DSM-IV National, 7,756 people aged 16 and over recruited by computing- assisting interviewing, supplemented by telephone interview for those who refused to participate 47% 73% past-year PGSI: Problem gambling 8+ : 0.
SOGS National, 2,710 people aged 18—64 recruited by face-to-face interviews and a self-administered questionnaire 85.
PGSI National, 1,887 adults aged 18—70 recruited by telephone interview 61.
CPGI-short form National, 31,984 people aged 15—64 recruited by anonymous postal questionnaire 35% 42.
SOGS National, 5,575 people aged 16 and over recruited predominantly by telephone interview.
Participants could also complete an online questionnaire 25% Not reported SOGS: Problem gambling 3—4 : 1.
NODS National, 3,482 people aged 16—74 recruited by self-administered email surveys 36.
SOGS-R National, 7,139 people aged 15—74 recruited mainly by phone interview 89% and by email 11% 72% 95% lifetime SOGS: Problem gambling 3—4 : 2.
PGSI and SOGS National, 8,165 people aged 16—84 recruited by phone interview, supplemented by email for those who could not be contacted by phone 55% 72% past-year PGSI: Problem gambling 8+ : 0.
SOGS National, 2,526 people aged 18 and over recruited by telephone interview 59% Not reported SOGS: Problem gambling 3—4 : 2.
SOGS National, 2,803 people aged 18 and over recruited by telephone interview 47% Not reported SOGS: Problem gambling 3—4 : 2.
NODS 6,047 people aged 18 and over in German and Italian speaking part of Switzerland, recruited by telephone interview 52.
Three studies were conducted in North America, one in South America, 10 in Asia, five in Oceania, four in Africa, and 46 in Europe, comprising a total of 30 countries.
The present review considers the combined rate of problem and pathological gambling, as many studies merge problem gambling with pathological gambling e.
Gambling and problem gambling worldwide The empirical studies conducted worldwide since 2000 on adult gambling and problem gambling demonstrate that there are many countries that have never carried out studies on gambling behavior.
Most studies on problem gambling have been conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and Oceania.
Despite the lack of research in some countries, the findings demonstrate that 0.
It may also be noted that some variations in problem gambling prevalence rates occur across different continents.
More specifically, in North America the past-year problem gambling prevalence rates ranged from 2% to 5%, in Asia 0.
Therefore, Asia and Europe appear to be the continents that show the greatest variations in past-year problem gambling prevalence rates.
In the next section, a more detailed picture of gambling and problem gambling in Europe is presented.
Gambling and problem gambling in Europe The remainder of this review focuses on studies carried out in Europe.
In fact, Europe is mainly regulated by the European Internal Market, and is characterized by a standardized system of laws that apply in all member states and maintain common policies on various sectors.
However, the gambling sector differs from other economic activities, because it is regulated almost exclusively at the national level rather than by the European Union law.
In fact, national regulatory approaches to gambling vary widely across countriesand according to some researchers e.
At the same time, the European Union appears to be moving toward a more continued expansion of gambling characterized by the legalization and liberalization of gambling markets in the past few decades.
Therefore, this variation of gambling patterns across European countries together with its expansion shows the need to provide prevalence estimates of problem gambling, as well as its associated demographics and other information available separately for each country.
To date, there have been two other reviews concerning gambling in Europe i.
Therefore, the present paper attempts to fill this gap and provides a brief country-by-country analysis of the evidence of gambling and problem gambling, and associated demographics in alphabetical order.
However, there are 21 European countries that have not carried out any empirical research on adult gambling i.
Austria Kalke et al.
A total of 0.
The highest percentages of pathological gamblers were arcade slot machine gamblers 47%followed by sports bettors 20%and casino gamblers 17%.
Belgium A study carried out by Druine, Delmarcelle, Dubois, Joris, and Somers examined adult gambling behavior with a representative sample of 3,002 Belgians, aged 16—99 years.
The most popular forms of gambling reported were lotteries 46% past-yearscratch tickets 39%and television phone-in quizzes 12%.
In the same study, respondents were also screened for gambling problems using the multiple response version of DSM-IV.
The results showed that 1.
Problem gambling was more prevalent among men 2.
The proportion of problem gamblers was significantly higher among the 16—24 year age group 4%single 3.
Cyprus A prevalence survey on adult gambling behavior was conducted in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a Muslim part of the country.
The study by Çakici comprised 929 individuals aged 18—65 years.
The activities most played were lottery games 37.
With regard to problem gambling, 2.
The survey also reported that being male, being aged between 18 and 29 years, being unmarried or divorced, and not having any children contributed to an increased likelihood of experiencing gambling-related problems.
Czech Republic The National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Addiction, along with other organizations, conducted a survey assessing the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in the country.
The sample comprised 2,134 individuals aged 15—64 years.
The results showed that onbling casino no deposit bonus codes may 2020 prevalence of problem gambling was 2.
The rate for prevalence for substantial problems was 0.
Denmark In 2005, a survey comprising 8,153 individuals aged between 18 and 74 years was conducted.
According to this survey, the NODS showed a lifetime prevalence of pathological gambling at 0.
Past-year prevalence rates in Denmark were 0.
With regard to demographics, men, individuals aged between 18 and 44 years, single or unmarried individual, and individuals living in a home without children were more likely to be problem gamblers.
In addition, another two representative surveys were carried out in 2005 and 2010, derived from the Danish Health Interview Survey and the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, respectively.
In 2005, data were obtained for 5,686 individuals aged 16 years and over.
The results showed that the past-year prevalence of problem gambling among adults was 0.
In 2010, data were obtained from 14,670 individuals aged 16 years and over.
The results showed that the past-year prevalence of problem gambling among adults was 0.
In both surveys, the prevalence of problem gambling was higher among men and individuals aged between 16 and 24 years.
Estonia There have been two gambling prevalence surveys among the Estonian population aged between 15 and 74 https://indonesiaairsoft.com/2020/slotter-machine-operation-animation.html />In 2004, the estimates of probable pathological gamblers SOGS score 5+ and problem gamblers SOGS score 3—4 were 2.
In the 2006 survey, the respective percentages were 3.
In both the 2004 and 2006 surveys, potential problem gamblers and probable pathological gamblers were more likely to be male.
Probable pathological gambling was generally more prevalent among young people, with the prevalence of problem gambling being the highest in the 15—29-year age group.
Moreover, the study also showed that there were more problem gamblers among higher income groups.
However, it was also noted by Lansoo and Niit that a large proportion of the risk groups had no regular income at all e.
Finland In 2003, the first national Finnish gambling prevalence survey was carried outwith 5,013 participants aged 15—74 years.
The prevalence of problem gambling using the SOGS was 1.
The prevalence rate of probable pathological gambling among those aged 15—24 years was 10%.
It was also reported that problem gamblers were more likely to be those on low incomes.
Another national gambling survey was carried out for the Ministry of Social Affairs costa rica gambling bust 2020 Health comprising 5,008 individuals aged 15 years and over.
The results indicated that 2.
Another gambling prevalence study was carried out among 2,826 individuals aged 15—64 years.
The results showed that a total of 1.
This study also showed that younger age, male gender, and unemployment were significantly associated with problematic gambling.
A more recent study using data from the nationwide Finnish Gambling 2011 survey was carried out among 4,484 Finns aged 15—74 years.
The overall problem gambling prevalence rate was 0.
France In 2010, the first national gambling survey was carried out by the French Institute of Drugs and Addictions.
This survey used the PGSI to assess problem gambling, and 25,034 individuals aged 15—75 years participated.
Among active players, 3.
With regard to socio-demographic characteristics, problem gamblers were more likely to be male 75.
Extrapolating these results to the French population, 0.
More recently, the French Institute of Drugs and Addictions conducted the latest gambling prevalence survey in the country.
In this study, 15,635 individuals aged between 15 and 75 years participated.
Among the participants, 0.
In addition, problem gamblers were mainly male 69.
Germany The first German national prevalence study was conducted by Buth and Stöver and comprised 7,980 individuals aged 18—65 years.
To determine the prevalence rate of problem and pathological gambling, an instrument containing 19 items was used, and with one exception withdrawal symptomstwo items each assessed one DSM-IV criterion of pathological gambling.
The results indicated that 0.
The second representative population survey was carried out by Bühringer, Kraus, Sonntag, Pfeiffer-Gerschel, and Steiner and comprised 7,817 individuals aged 18—64 years.
To diagnose pathological gambling behavior, the DSM-IV criteria DSM-IV-TR were adopted.
The prevalence of problem gambling was 0.
Another representative study on gambling among the German population was carried out by the Federal Center for Health Education BZgA.
The sample comprised 10,001 adults aged 16—65 years.
The results indicated that 0.
A study by Sassen et al.
Using the DSM-IV criteria, past-year pathological gambling prevalence was 0.
Pathological gambling was more prevalent among males 95.
Finally, the most recent study was carried out on behalf of the Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology program seewith a sample of 15,023 individuals aged 14—64 years.
The study reported a past-year pathological gambling prevalence rate of 0.
Higher rates of gambling problems were found for males, younger ages, and individuals born abroad microgaming casino no deposit bonus 2020 />Great Britain The first British Gambling Prevalence Survey BGPS comprised 7,680 individuals .
The results showed that the most popular gambling activities were the National Lottery 65%followed by scratch cards 22% and slot machines 14%.
Problem gambling using the SOGS was 0.
The second BGPS was conducted comprising 9,003 individuals.
The results showed that the most popular gambling activities were again the National Lottery 57%followed by scratch cards 20%and betting on horse races 17%.
Problem gambling prevalence rate as assessed by the PGSI was 0.
The third BGPS was conducted comprising 7,756 individuals.
Problem gambling prevalence was 0.
According to the DSM-IV, problem gambling was 0.
Problem gambling was assessed using the DSM-IV criteria, and 0.
According to the DSM-IV, problem gambling prevalence was 0.
Hungary The first national study on gambling was carried out by Paksi, Rózsa, Kun, Arnold, and Demetrovicswith 2,710 participants aged 18—64 years.
According to this survey, the most popular gambling activities were lottery and other number draw games 59.
The prevalence of problem gambling SOGS 3—4 was 1.
Pathological gambling and problem gambling were higher among men 5.
Pathological gambling was significantly lower among unmarried individuals 0.
Iceland In Iceland, Gallup conducted a national gambling survey using a lifetime version of the NODS.
The sample comprised 1,500 participants aged 16—75 years.
The total lifetime prevalence rate for problem gambling was 0.
Pathological gambling was only found among men 1.
Another national survey was carried out by Olason and Gretarsson and comprised a sample of 3,358 respondents who completed the 19-item version of the DIGS alongside questions examining gambling participation.
The most popular gambling activities among adults were the Lotto, scratch tickets, and gambling machines.
In this sample, 0.
In addition, the findings showed that men, single individuals, and those who had only finished primary education were more at risk for developing problem gambling.
More recently, another study was conducted by Olason, Hayer, Brosowski, and Meyer with 1,887 individuals aged 18—74 years.
Subsequently, analysis showed that males, those in the age group 18—25 years, and those with primary education were more likely to be categorized as problem gamblers scoring 3+ on the PGSI.
Italy Two gambling prevalence studies have been carried out in Italy i.
The study carried out by Bastiani et al.
Problem gambling was assessed using the PGSI.
The findings showed that 42.
Another study ;with a sample of 2,000 participants aged 18—74 years, was conducted.
The prevalence of problem gambling reported using a combination of the SOGS threshold for potentially pathological with the PGSI problem gambling was 1.
The rate of at-risk gambling was 1.
Northern Ireland A gambling prevalence survey was conducted in Northern Irelandwith a random sample of 1,032 individuals aged 16 years and over.
The overall prevalence of problem gambling using the PGSI score 8+ was 2.
The highest rate of problem gambling was found among the 25—29-year age group 4.
The Netherlands Two gambling prevalence surveys have been conducted in the Netherlands.
The first one comprised 5,575 respondents aged 16 years and over.
The findings showed that 1% were probable pathological gamblers SOGS 5+ and 1.
The past-year prevalence rates for pathological and problem gambling were 0.
The highest prevalence of problem gambling was present among male gender, among individuals aged between 30—50 years and between 18—30 years, among ethnic minorities, and among the unemployed.
The second prevalence survey was conducted in 2011 by Bieleman et al.
The percentage of problem gambling 5+ in SOGS was 0.
The rates of at-risk and problem gambling did not change statistically between 2005 and 2011 see also.
Norway The first Norwegian study of problem gambling prevalence was conducted in Trondheim among 2,014 participants.
It was reported that 0.
Problem gambling the combined rate of pathological and at-risk gambling was more prevalent among men than women 0.
Another Norwegian national survey was carried out in 2002 with a sample of 5,235 participants aged 15—74 years.
The most popular gambling activities were the lotteries 73.
Using the NODS, lifetime prevalence rate of pathological gambling was 0.
The past-year prevalence rates for problem and pathological gambling were 0.
Using the SOGS, lifetime prevalence rate of pathological gambling was 0.
Past-year pathological and problem gambling were 0.
The most recent prevalence gambling survey was conducted between January and March 2007 using the NODS and comprised 3,482 participants aged 16—74 years.
Lifetime and past-year prevalence rates of problematic gambling endorsement of 3+ items in the 10-item NODS were 1.
Men scored significantly higher than women on all gambling measures, and lifetime and past-year problematic gambling decreased with age.
In addition, remarkable, fort mcdowell casino fireworks 2020 congratulate single, having a low educational level, and being born in a non-Western country were associated with problem gambling.
The gambling activities most engaged by past-year problem gamblers were slot machines and student gambling statistics uk 2020 gambling.
Portugal Lopes conducted the first study in Portugal, with a sample of 3,850 individuals aged 18—70 years.
The findings revealed a problem gambling rate of 0.
According to this study, the gambling games that caused greater problems were private card games, Internet games, and slot machines.
Slovenia At the end of 2008, the first gambling prevalence survey was conducted in Slovenia by Makarovič, Rončević, Macur, and Besednjak with a sample of 10,001 individuals.
The survey reported a rate of problem gambling as assessed by SOGS of 1.
With regard to demographics, there were significantly more problem gamblers among men, single, and younger individuals.
Spain With respect to empirical research conducted in Spain, a significant number of studies have been carried out, but most have been carried out on local or regional samples e.
The most recent empirical available study was carried out by Pass line in Galicia comprising 1,624 adults aged 18 years and over.
The results indicated that 0.
With regard to demographics, all lifetime pathological, problem, and at-risk gamblers were men.
Moreover, 60% of pathological gamblers were married, whereas 26.
In addition, 50% of problem and at-risk gamblers were single, whereas 37.
With respect to age, 40% of pathological gamblers were aged 65 years and over, whereas 33.
On the other hand, 50% of problem and at-risk gamblers were aged between 46 and 64 years and 37.
Sweden The first national gambling survey in Sweden was carried out with a sample of 7,139 individuals aged click here years.
The results indicated that the combined rates of problem and pathological gambling were 3.
Moreover, subsequent analysis showed that being male, having less than 25 years, and having born abroad were significant risk factors for gambling problems.
The most recent survey was conducted between November 2008 and April 2009with 8,165 individuals aged 16—84 years.
The most common gambling activity was the lottery 62%followed by horse race betting 24% and sports betting 19.
Based on the PGSI, 0.
Based on SOGS-R, the lifetime prevalence rate of problem gambling was 2.
The past-year estimates were 0.
Men, individuals born outside Sweden, those residing in big cities, and those with primary education only also had significantly elevated problem gambling prevalence rates.
Switzerland The first prevalence gambling study in Switzerland was carried out by Bondolfi, Osiek, and Ferrero with 2,526 participants.
The results indicated that free no slots 2020 />The potential and probable pathological gambler group mainly comprised males 73%individuals under age 29 years 43%and those who started to gamble before 21 years 89%.
Another survey was conducted in the German and French speaking part of Switzerland, with 1,000 individuals student gambling statistics uk 2020 15—74 years.
The results indicated that 1.
Furthermore, this study showed that the risk factors for a higher score in the SOGS-R were living in the German speaking part of Switzerland, being male, and being of younger age.
A third study was conducted in 2005 by Bondolfi, Jermann, Ferrero, Zullino, and Osiekwith 2,803 individuals.
The results showed a past-year prevalence of problem SOGS 3—4 and pathological gambling SOGS 5+ of 0.
The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 2.
More recently, another survey was carried out in the German and Italian speaking part of Switzerland.
The final sample included 6,047 participants aged 18 years and over.
Lifetime prevalence rates of problem gambling were 0.
Past-year prevalence rates were 0.
As in other surveys, problem and pathological gamblers were more likely to be men.
Discussion Almost all national surveys have concluded that most individuals have gambled at some point during their lives, and there are more gamblers than non-gamblers.
This highlights the need to conduct regular systematic reviews on gambling and problem gambling in order to examine gambling patterns across different countries.
From a methodological point of view, the majority of gambling studies have used telephone and face-to-face interviews to recruit participants.
However, it should be noted that all studies mentioned are based on self-report data, which are subject to many well-known weaknesses such as the reliability of memory, social desirability, and the honesty of the responses given.
Nonetheless, despite the relatively common procedure of data collection, other variations have been found.
The studies reported here used many different problem gambling screening instruments.
It is well known that different problem gambling screens produce different rates of problem gambling.
For instance, some researchers have suggested that the SOGS produces too many false positives and may yield higher rates for problem gambling e.
Looking at the studies that used the SOGS together with another screening instrument, it can be observed that the problem gambling rates measured by the SOGS were higher e.
In fact, a common finding is that DSM-based instruments tend to result in lower prevalence rates than SOGS, and that PGSI scores are somewhere in-between.
Furthermore, different scoring criteria to designate problem gambling sometimes within the same instrument used also produce different rates of problem gambling.
In addition, it is quite evident that different time frames lifetime vs.
Finally, another difficulty was related to the lack of accessibility and quality of some studies.
In fact, some countries only have their data published in non-peer-reviewed reports, which are only accessible in their native languages e.
Despite these challenges, it can be observed that lifetime prevalence of combined problem and pathological gambling across the world ranged from 0.
During the Soviet time, gambling was prohibited with the exception of lottery games.
Since re-independence, the Estonian population has gained some freedoms and many gambling activities became available during this period, providing a range of gambling opportunities equal to that of Western Europe in a relatively short time.
Most individuals were not able to evaluate the potential hazards of gambling, hence it was viewed as an innocent pastime.
However, it should be noted that the most recent Estonian prevalence gambling survey was conducted in 2006 and might now be different.
With regard to past-year problem gambling prevalence, it varied between 0.
This finding can be easily explained by the many gambling opportunities that exist in this country.
However, it should be noted that this high prevalence rate of problem gambling was not found in the most recent gambling prevalence survey conducted in Hong Kong.
Examination of the European past-year problem gambling prevalence rates showed that they varied between 0.
This Switzerland prevalence rate is more difficult to explain, especially because the lowest European prevalence rate was also found in Switzerland, more specifically in the German and Italian speaking part see.
Examining the gambling trends in Europe, it may be noted that problem gambling rates remained stable in many countries that have conducted more than one gambling survey e.
However, in other countries such as Estonia, there was an increase in problem gambling prevalence rates, suggesting the need for the development of policies that protect individuals from gambling-related harms.
uk casino 2020 no deposit bonus codes some variations in problem gambling prevalence rates, in most European countries, there were relatively consistent results with regard to socio-demographic characteristics.
Problem gambling was more likely to occur among men e.
These findings suggest a need to conduct more research in order to examine the meanings of gambling attributed by individuals with different types of incomes in various parts of Europe.
The most frequent gambling activities across most countries were lotteries, scratch cards, sports betting, and gambling machines e.
However, despite the popularity of such games, the gambling activities most played by problem gamblers were slot machines and Internet gambling games ; .
The findings that the most problematic and addictive gambling activities included those that involve high event frequencies and short interval between stake and payout such as slot machines confirm some previous studies e.
Overall, the present review supports the findings of other reviews with regard to the variations of problem gambling prevalence rates across different countries, as well as the demographics, and gambling activities that are more associated with adult problem gambling e.
However, notwithstanding these similarities, this review expands and updates the previous reviews, which are now outdated.
Moreover, this paper provided a country-by-country analysis of the European continent, which should encourage the development of a common prevention strategy.
MDG supervised the work of FC, and contributed to the writing of the paper throughout all the drafts.
Both authors have full access to all data and take responsibility for the integrity and accuracy of the data.
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The fall and rise of a gambling addict


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The National Health Service (NHS) in England has confirmed that there has been. NHS Data Shows Problem Gambling Increase in England. LSAC Publishes Latest Australia Underage Gambling Statistics. The first product to include the mechanic is Temple Stacks: Splitz which will arrive early in 2020.


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