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For other uses, see.
A screwdriver is amanual or powered, for screwing installing and unscrewing removing.
A typical simple screwdriver has a handle and a shaft, ending in a tip the user puts into the screw head before turning the handle.
The shaft is usually made of tough steel to resist bending or twisting.
The tip may be hardened to resist wear, treated with a dark tip coating for improved visual contrast between tip and screw—or ridged or treated for additional 'grip'.
Handles are typically wood, metal, or plastic and usually hexagonal, square, or oval in cross-section to improve grip and prevent the tool from rolling when set down.
Some manual screwdrivers have interchangeable tips that fit into a socket on the end of the shaft and are held in mechanically or magnetically.
These often have a hollow handle that contains various types and sizes of tips, and a reversible action that allows multiple full turns without repositioning the tip or the user's hand.
Screwdriver A slotted or "flat-blade" screwdriver Other learn more here Turnscrew Classification Types See shape chart below Related A screwdriver is classified by its tip, which is shaped to fit the driving surfaces—slots, grooves, recesses, etc.
Proper use requires that the screwdriver's tip engage the head of a screw of the same size and type designation as the screwdriver tip.
Screwdriver tips are available in a wide variety of types and sizes.
The two most common are the simple 'blade'-type for slotted screws, and Phillips, generically called "cross-recess", "cross-head", or "cross-point".
A wide variety of power screwdrivers 1/2 slotted screwdriver bit from a simple 'stick'-type with batteries, a motor, and a tip all that glitters all inline, to powerful "pistol" type VSR variable-speed reversible that also function as screwdrivers.
This is particularly useful as drilling a pilot hole before driving a screw is a common operation.
Special combination drill-driver bits and adapters let an operator rapidly alternate between the two.
Variations includewhich provide two types of 'hammering' force for improved performance in certain situations, and "right-angle" drivers for use in tight spaces.
See also: The earliest documented screwdrivers were used in the late.
They were probably invented in the late 15th century, either in or.
The tool's original names in German and French were Schraubendreher screwturner and tournevis turnscrewrespectively.
The first documentation of the tool is in the medievala manuscript written sometime between 1475 and 1490.
These earliest screwdrivers had pear-shaped handles and were made for slotted screws diversification of the many types of screwdrivers did not emerge until the.
The screwdriver remained inconspicuous, however, as evidence of its existence throughout the next 300 years is based primarily on the presence of screws.
Screws were used in the 15th century to construct screw-cuttingfor securing breastplates, backplates, and helmets on medieval —and eventually for multiple parts of the emergingparticularly the matchlock.
Screws, hence screwdrivers, were not used in full combat armor, most likely to give the wearer freedom of movement.
The tool is more documented in France, and took on many shapes and sizes, though all for slotted screws.
There were large, heavy-duty screwdrivers for building and repairing large machines, and smaller screwdrivers for refined cabinet work.
The screwdriver depended entirely on the screw, and it took several advances to make the screw easy enough to produce to become time what slot is short and widespread.
The most popular door at the time was the butt-hinge, but it was considered a luxury.
The butt-hinge was handmade, and its constant motion required the security of a screw.
Screws were very hard to produce before therequiring manufacture of a conical.
The brothers Job and William Wyatt found a way to produce a screw on a novel machine that first cut the slotted head, and then cut the helix.
Though their business ultimately failed, their contribution to low-cost manufacturing of the screw ultimately led to a vast increase in the screw and the screwdriver's popularity.
The increase in popularity gradually led to refinement and eventually diversification of the screwdriver.
Refinement of the precision of screws also significantly contributed to the boom in production, mostly by increasing its efficiency and standardizing sizes, important precursors to industrial manufacture.
Close-up of Robertson screwthough he was not the first person to patent the idea of socket-head screws, was the first to successfully commercialize them, starting in 1908.
Socket screws rapidly grew in popularity, and are still used for their resistance to wear and tear, compatibility withand ability to stop a when set.
Though immensely popular, Robertson had trouble marketing his invention to the newly boomingfor he was unwilling to relinquish his patents.
Phillips screw head Meanwhile, inpatented his own invention, an improved version of a deep socket with a slot, today known as the Phillips Screw.
Phillips offered his screw to the American Screw Company, and after a successful trial on the 1936it quickly swept through the.
With the Industrial Revival at the end of the and the upheaval ofthe Phillips screw quickly became, and remains, the most popular screw in the world.
A main attraction for the screw was that conventional slotted screwdrivers could also be used more info them, which was not possible with the Robertson Screw.
The name was common in earlier centuries, used by cabinetmakers, shipwrights, and perhaps other trades.
The cabinetmaker's screwdriver is one of the longest-established handle forms, somewhat oval or ellipsoid in cross section.
This is variously attributed to improving grip or preventing the tool rolling off the bench.
The shape has been popular for a https://indonesiaairsoft.com/slot/apache-chief-slots.html of hundred years.
It is usually associated with a plain head for slotted screws, but has been used with many head forms.
Modern plastic screwdrivers use a handle with a roughly cross section to achieve these same two goals, a far cry from the pear-shaped handle of the original 15th-century screwdriver.
The design is influenced by both purpose and manufacturing requirements.
Many manufacturers adopted this handle design.
The "flat bladed" screwdriver was another design composed of with riveted wood handles.
Screwdriver with rubber handle The shape and material of many modern screwdriver handles are designed in the user's hand, for user comfort and to facilitate maximum control and.
Designs include indentations for the user's fingers, and surfaces of a soft material such as to 1/2 slotted screwdriver bit comfort and grip.
Composite handles of rigid and are also common.
Many screwdriver handles are not smooth and often not round, but have flats or other irregularities to improve grip and to prevent the tool from rolling when on a flat surface.
Some screwdrivers have a short hexagonal section at the top of the blade, adjacent to the handle, so that a ring spanner or open wrench can be used to increase the applied torque.
The offset new slots has a handle set at right angles to the small blade, providing access to narrow spaces and giving extra torque.
A set of "secure" or otherwise less common screwdriver bits, including secure Torx and secure hex or "allen" variants.
Screwdrivers come in a large range of sizes to accommodate various screws—from tiny jeweller's screwdrivers up.
A screwdriver that is not the right size and type for the screw may damage the screw in the process of tightening it.
Some screwdriver tips are magnetic, so that the screw unless non-magnetic remains attached to the screwdriver without requiring external force.
This is particularly useful in small screws, which are otherwise very difficult to attempt to handle.
Many screwdriver designs have a handle with detachable tip the part of the screwdriver that engages the screwcalled bits as with.
This provides a set of one handle and several bits that can drive a variety of screw sizes and types.
Drive types Main article: The tool used to drive a slotted screw head is called a standard, common blade, flat-blade, slot-head, straight, flat, flat-tip, or " flat-head" screwdriver.
This last usage can 2 casino slot guide confusing, because the term flat-head also describes a screw with a flat top, designed to install in a.
Furthermore, the term implies that a screwdriver has a "head"; it does not.
Such a flat-headed screw may have a slotted, cross, square recessed, or combination head.
Before the development of the newer bit types, the flat-blade was called the "Common-Blade", because it was the most common one.
Depending on the application, the name of this screwdriver may differ.
Though there are many names, the original device from 1908 was known as a "flat-head screw turner".
The more common type is sometimes called keystone, where the blade profile is slightly flared before tapering off at the end, which provides extra stiffness to the workface and makes it capable of withstanding more torque.
To maximize access in space-restricted applications, the cabinet variant screwdriver blade sides are straight and parallel, reaching the end of the blade at a right angle.
This 1/2 slotted screwdriver bit is also frequently used in jeweler's screwdrivers.
Many textbooks and vocational schools instruct mechanics to grind down the tip of the blade, which, due to the taper, increases its thickness and consequently allows more precise engagement with the slot in the screw.
This approach creates a set of graduated slotted screwdrivers that fit a particular screw for a tighter engagement and reduce screw head deformation.
However, many better-quality screwdriver blades are already surface heat-treatedand tip grinding after manufacture compromises their durability.
Thus, it is best to select a tip made to fit precisely to begin with, and avoid weakening the factory heat-treatment.
Comparison of Philips and Frearson screw heads Phillips screwdrivers come in several standard sizes, ranging from tiny "jeweler's" to those used for automobile frame assembly—or 000 to 4 respectively.
This size number is usually stamped onto the shank shaft or handle for identification.
Each bit size fits a range of screw sizes, more or less well.
Each Phillips screwdriver size also has a related shank diameter.
The driver has a 57° point and tapered, unsharp rounded flutes.
The 1 and smaller bits come to a blunt point, but the 2 and above have no point, but rather a nearly squared-off tip, making each size incompatible with the other.
The design is often criticized for its please click for source to at lower torque levels than other "cross head" designs, an effect caused by the tapered profile of the flutes which makes them easier to insert into the screw than other similar styles.
There has long been a popular belief that this was actually a deliberate feature of the design.
Evidence is lacking for this specific narrative and the feature is not mentioned in the original patents.
However, a subsequent refinement to the original design described in US Patent 2,474,994 describes this feature.
A variety of Robertson sizes Robertson, also known as a square, or Scrulox screw drive has a -shaped socket in the screw head and a square protrusion on the tool.
Both the tool and the socket have a taper, which makes inserting the tool easier, and also tends to help keep the screw on the tool tip without the user needing to hold it there.
The taper's earliest reason for being was to make the manufacture of the screws practical using of the heads, but its other advantages helped popularize the drive.
Robertson screws are commonplace inthough they have been used elsewhere, and have become much more common in other countries in recent decades.
Robertson screwdrivers are easy to use one-handed, because the tapered socket tends to retain the screw, even if it is shaken.
They also allow for the use of angled screw drivers and trim head screws.
The socket-headed Robertson screws are self-centering, reduce cam can slot exhaust hoods apologise, stop a power tool when set, and can be removed if painted-over or old and rusty.
In industry, they speed up production and reduce product damage.
Henry Ford found them highly reliable and saved considerable production time, but he couldn't secure licensing for them in the United States, so he limited their use solely to his Canadian division.
Robertson-head screwdrivers are available in a standard range of tip-sizes, from 1.
Reed and Prince, also called Frearson, is another historic cross-head screw configuration.
The cross in the screw head is sharper and less rounded than a Phillips, and the bit has 45° flukes and a sharper, pointed end.
Also, the Phillips screw slot is not as deep as the Reed and Prince slot.
Phillips and Pozidriv compared.
Pozidriv and the related Supadriv are widely used in Europe and most of the Far East.
While Pozidriv screws have cross heads like Phillips and are sometimes thought effectively the same, the Pozidriv design allows higher torque application than Phillips.
It is often claimed that they can apply more torque than any of the other commonly used cross-head screwdriver systems, due to a complex fluting mating configuration.
Japanese Industrial Standard JIS cross-head screwdrivers are still another standard, often inaccurately called Japanese Phillips.
Compatible screw heads are usually identifiable by a single depressed dot or an "X" to one side of the cross slot.
This is a screw standard throughout the Asia market and Japanese imports.
The driver has a 57° point with a flat finder total rewards />Many modernif they contain screws, use screws with heads other than the typical slotted or Phillips styles.
It is a spline tip with a corresponding recess in the screw head.
The main cause of this trend is manufacturing efficiency: Torx screwdriver tips do not slip out of the fastener as easily as would a Phillips or slotted driver.
Slotted screws are rarely used in mass-produced devices, since the driver is not inherently centered on the fastener.
Non-typical fasteners are commonplace in consumer devices for their ability to make disassembly more difficult, which is seen as a benefit for manufacturers but is considered a disadvantage by users than if more-common head types were used.
In microwave ovens, such screws deny casual access to the high-power kilovolt electrical components, which are very dangerous.
However, Torx and other drivers have become widely available to the consumer due to their increasing use in the industry.
This is called a Pentalobe.
Specialized patterns of security screws are also used, such as 1/2 slotted screwdriver bit Line Head LH style by OSG System Products, Japan, as used in many consoles, though drivers for the more common security heads are, again, readily available.
Another type of security head has smooth see more surfaces instead of the slot edges that would permit loosening the screw; it is found in public golden slots cheats room privacy partitions, and cannot be removed by conventional screwdrivers.
Main article: Screwdrivers are available—manual, electric, and pneumatic—with a that slips at a preset torque.
This helps the user tighten screws to a specified torque without damage or over-tightening.
Cordless drills designed to use as screwdrivers often have such a clutch.
Powered 1/2 slotted screwdriver bit A rechargeable battery-powered electric screwdriver.
Interchangeable bits allow the use of powered screwdrivers, commonly using an electric or air motor to rotate the bit.
How to use a cordless drill as a powered screwdriver 1/2 slotted screwdriver bit screwdrivers Some manual screwdrivers have a action whereby the screwdriver blade locks to the handle for clockwise rotation, but uncouples for counterclockwise rotation when set for tightening screws—and vice versa for loosening.
Stanley Yankee No 130A, spiral or ratchet screwdriver Spiral ratchet screw drivers, often colloquially called a brand nameprovide a special mechanism that transforms into.
Originally the "" name was used on all tools sold by the but later, after purchased the company, it became synonymous with only this type of screwdriver.
The user pushes the handle toward the workpiece, causing a in a groove to rotate the shank and the removable bit.
The 1/2 slotted screwdriver bit be set to rotate left or right with each push, or can be locked so that the tool can be used like a conventional screwdriver.
One disadvantage of this design is that if the bit slips out of the screw, the resultant sudden extension of the spring may cause the bit to scratch or otherwise damage the workpiece.
Once very popular, versions of these spiral ratchet drivers using proprietary bits have been largely discontinued by manufacturers such as Stanley.
Since a wide variety of drill bits are available in this format, the tool can do double duty as a "push drill" or.
Manual straight screwdrivers are commonly abused as improvised substitutes for other tools, such as or.
Screwdrivers are not designed for these purposes, and such use can damage the tip, bend the shaft, or injure the user if the screwdriver slips or breaks.
Screwdrivers have also been used as weapons, and are usually tightly restricted in prisons.
Incredibly, screwdrivers have also been used as a tool to avoid radioactive material from becoming critical.
New York: Random House.
Retrieved 27 September 2018.
Avionic Navigation Systems Specialist.
Extension Course Institute, Air University.
Retrieved 27 September 2018.
Virginia Tech Digital Library and Archives.
PDF from the original on 2015-10-24.
The Frearson recess is designed so that any size bit will fit any size recess.
Retrieved 13 September 2014.
Retrieved September 14, 2014.
Various republications paperback, e-book, braille, etc.
KC Tool Unboxing E12
The chart below shows the proper Phillips bit to use for driving each type of fastener.. and Phillips are registered trademarks of the Phillips Screw Company.. 12, 14. 12, 1/4", 5/16". 12, 1/4". 4. 18, 20, 24. 18, 20, 24. 5/16", 3/8", 7/16", 1/2". —.
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